Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in experimental albino rats - Histopathological study
V A, Doss
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Acetaminophen in overdose cause Nephrotoxicity (Acute Renal Failure) which exert toxic effects by one or more common mechanisms such as interglomerular hemodynamic tubular cell toxicity, inflammation, or decreased cellularity by proximal tubules, which lead to acute renal failure. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical investigations like estimation of blood urea, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin sodium and potassium. By using one way ANOVA, the results are significant at 0.001. Wister albino rats weighing 125- 150 gms were used for the present study. The present study finds few of the proximal tubules with hyaline degeneration and interstitium with hemorrhage in thick-walled vessels. The glomerular basement shows edema with histiocytes. Most of the tubules show acute tubular necrosis with ghost structures of tubules with intraluminal casts. The interstitium shows increased inflammation. The hilar fat shows up in the ureter with inflammation of the wall. Hyaline cast formation is observed with cellular degeneration in PCT with atrophic glomeruli. It is concluded that more than 1 gms/bw for a day should not be taken because it causes harmful effects on renal function test. Also suggested that acetaminophen must be given in the lowest effective therapeutic doses along with antioxidant administration to prevent early acute renal failure.